Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors , FBG Interrogators

Fiber Bragg Grating sensors

Fiber Bragg grating Sensor (FBGS) is characterized by the periodic modulation of the refractive index in the core of an optical fiber. This modulation causes the FBG to reflect a range of wavelengths of the incident light and transmit the remaining wavelength band. Such gratings are intrinsic sensing elements that can be photo-inscribed into the optical fiber usually by exposing its core to an interference pattern from an ultraviolet laser. However, there is a set of other methods for this purpose.

Interrogation system for such sensors can operate based on the multiplexing of several FBGs in a single fiber, when these sensors operate as a quasi-distributed sensing network. Following this idea, grating-based sensors have been employed in a wide variety of applications in sensing and communications, including the sensing of temperature, from the date of its discovery  and also to measure strain or refractive index, to name a few.

Fiber Bragg Grating  Sensors Advantages

  • FBG sensors are passive.
  • Optical fibers are non conductive, so lightning will not destroy FBG sensors with an electrical surge.
  • FBG sensors are immune to EMI.
  • Fiber sensor instruments (aka interrogators) have a range of well over 30 km and a capacity for more than 80 sensors per fiber and 16 fibers. That’s a total of >1280 sensors per demodulation instrument.
  • FBGs respond quickly to even slight temperature variations.
  • FBGs can be spaced at 1 cm intervals along a fiber that is only 155 microns in diameter.
  • FBG sensors are made of silica (i.e., glass). They do not corrode.
  • Multiplexing dozens of FBGs in series in one fiber saves the cost of a home run lead to each sensor. Also, varying FBG sensor lead lengths does not impact sensor calibration.
  • Micron Optics sensor interrogation instruments have built-in calibration artifacts that last for the life of the instrument. The FBG sensors each have a digitally encoded identity that does not change. So once a system is installed and sensor zero points are recorded, no further calibration is required. Ever
  • Optical fiber is amazingly robust. Our FBG gages have been tested to >100 million cycles of +/-3,000 microstrain with no degradation of the measurement.
  • Some FBG strain gages can measure up to ~ 30,000 microstrains (i.e., 3% elongation).
  • Again, multiplexing is the key. A single, small fiber can connect 10s of gages to the interrogator.
  • FBGs measure directly strain and temperature. Tranducer packaging around FBGs makes measurement of other properties possible like pressure, acceleration, displacement, chemical presence, etc. All of these sensors, no matter what they measure, are measured by the same interrogator.
  • Because fibers are so small, they can be embedded in structures built with carbon fibers, glass fibers, concrete and steel, etc.
  • Optical components like the FBGs themselves and those used to build the interrogators, are Telcordia qualified for a >25 year lifetime. Telcordia is a set of standards established by the telecom industry for critical equipment deployed in harsh field applications.
  • Commercial quality FBG-based temperature sensors are available now for the -200°C to 300°C range, and promising prototypes have been shown to operate in 1,000 hour tests at 750°C. Materials like sapphire FBGs are under development for even higher temperatures.

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Application

Fiber Bragg granting sensors are used for a number of applications across many industries. some of the applications are listed below

  • Optical telecommunications and optical sensors
  • Fiber lasers
  • Fiber amplifiers
  • Fiber bragg filters
  • Wavelength Division multiplexer/de-multiplexer
  • Dispersion compensation monitoring
  • Optical layer monitoring
  • Humidity sensors
  • Static and dynamic strain monitoring
  • Length measurements in kilometer range

 

We at Argus Technologies  offers Customized PCB Design servicesPCB Assembly servicePCB Fabrication, Embedded Hardware, and software services. Please contact us for details and to get free quote on our services.

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Wireless SCADA Systems

wireless scada

What is SCADA?

wireless scada Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCADA is the acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.
SCADA is a computer-based system for gathering and analyzing real-time data to monitor and control equipment that deals with critical and time-sensitive materials or events.
SCADA systems were first used in the 1960s and are now an integral component in virtually all industrial plant and production facilities.

SCADA Systems are widely used in the following:

Oil and Gas
Pipeline monitoring and control
Remote monitoring and control of production, pumping, and storage locations
Offshore platforms and onshore wells
Refineries, petro-chemical stations

Water and Wastewater
Water treatment centers and distribution
Wastewater collection and treatment facilities

Utilities
Electrical power distribution from gas-fired, coal, nuclear
Electrical power transmission and distribution
Agriculture / Irrigation

Manufacturing
Food and Beverage
Pharmaceutical
Telecommunications
Transportation

Wireless SCADA Importance ?

One of the biggest advantages with the system in place is the fact that the top management always has timely and accurate data available to them at any time.
The real time data can be used by them to optimize the operation of a plant or a business process.
The system enables considerable improvement in the efficient running of a plant.
Moreover, it also ensures data safety, another crucial aspect that needs to be considered by businesses today.
When viewed from a company’s perspective, the system is invaluable, with it lessening the operating cost quite significantly.
The efficiency of the system directly translates into higher profits for businesses operating in various different sectors.

Components of SCADA

SCADA systems utilize Distribution Control Systems (DCS), Process Control Systems (PCS), Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Remote Terminal Units (RTU)
that perform the majority of local and remote process alarming, monitoring and control. The PLC or RTU are the Main work horses in the industries listed above.
The main Process of these devices includes observing liquid level and gas meter readings, equipment voltage and current, operating pressure and temperature, or other equipment status.

We at Argus Technologies  offers customized PCB Design servicesPCB Assembly servicePCB Fabrication, Embedded Hardware, and software services  Please contact us for details and to get free quote on our services.

Printed Circuit Board Design

Printed Circuit Board

Printed Circuit Board

 

Printed Circuit board or PCB is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

PCBs can be single-sided (one copper layer), double-sided (two copper layers on both sides of one substrate layer), or multi-layer (outer and inner layers of copper, alternating with layers of substrate). Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density, because circuit traces on the inner layers would otherwise take up surface space between components.

 PCB is Made of

A basis PCB starts with a copper-clad fiberglass material or thin copper sheets attached to either side of board. It consists of.

  • Copper Foil
  • Copper plating
  • Solder Flow
  • Solder Mask
  • Trace
  • Slots and Cut-outs

PCB Fabrication

  • Basic Steps for PCB design
  • Set-up
  • Imaging
  • Etching
  • Drilling
  • Masking
  • Silk screening
  • Route
  • Electrical Test

Different Types of Printed Circuit Boards

 

 

 

Types of printed circuit boards

PCB have copper tracks to connect the holes where the various components are located they are specially designed for each and every circuit and build construction very easy. Though, making the PCB necessitates special tools. The different types of printed circuit boards mainly include the following.

Single Sided Printed Circuit Boards

single sided PCB board
This type of printed circuit board contains just one layer of substrate or base material in this Single sided PCB one side of the substrate is covered with a thin layer of metal in this Copper metal is an excellent electrical conductor. The protective solder mask sits on the top of the copper layer and a silkscreen coat may be applied to the top of the mark parts of the PCB board.

Single-sided PCB has electronic components and circuits on only one side. This board works best for simple electronics or they can be used in very complex devices like

  • Power supplies
  • Relays (automotive and industrial)
  • Timing circuits
  • Sensors products
  • Led lighting radio and stereo equipment
  • Packaging equipment
  • Surveillance
  • Calculators
  • Printers
  • Coffeemakers
  • Vending machines
  • Solid state drives
  • Camera systems

Benefits of having single sided PCBs

Lower cost: single-sided PCBs especially for high volume orders the cost of manufacturing and producing single sided circuit boards are very cost-effective and affordable due to the basic designs.

Lower probability of manufacturing issues there will undoubtedly be fewer problems during the manufacturing stage Due to these manufacturers produce these boards at higher volumes at faster pace with the company standards.

Double Sided Printed Circuit Boards

Double sided PCBs

Double sided pcbs is the extension of single sided PCB when a single sided not enough it will go to the other side there will be conductor /line on both two sides.

Double-sided PCBs have a conductor pattern on either sides of the board having two separate conductor patterns needed an electrical connection between them. this electrical bridges are called ‘vias’ via is a hole in the pcb that filled or plated with metal and touches the conductor pattern on both sides of the pcbs.

Where we can use Double sided Printed Circuit Boards

There are a countless old and new double sided designs silver and gold finishes, ultra high copper, high and low temperature solder coated are the few examples of double sided PCBs boards.

Some are the applications of Double Sided PCBs

  • Power supplies
  • Converters
  • Control relays
  • Regulators
  • Led lighting
  • Phone systems
  • Line reactors
  • Test equipment
  • Amplifiers
  • Traffic systems
  • Automotive dashboards

Advantages of having Double sided PCB

  • Relatively lower cost
  • Reduced board size
  • Increased circuit density
  • Highly flexibly for designers

Multi-layer Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)

multilayer PCBs

The Multi layer PCB Boards is made with three or more conductive copper foil layers this appears as several layers of double-sided circuit boards to increase the space available for wiring. This can be achieved by laminating and glued the double sided circuit boards together with insulating layers in between. The entire process is done so that two layers are placed on the surface sides of the PCB to connect the environment and all the electrical connections between the layers are achieved with vias. Since the layers in a PCB are laminated together it’s often difficult to tell how many there are but u inspect the side of the board u may able to see them.

PCBs are becoming popular in electronics. They come in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses to accommodate the needs of their expanding applications they are ranging anywhere from four to twelve layers and are no more cost-effective to produce Application like mobile device and Smartphone tend to use around twelve layers.

Advantages of having Multilayer PCBs

  • Small in size
  • High Quality
  • Increased Durability
  • More Powerful
  • Single connection point

Where we can use the multi layer PCB

  • Consumer electronics
  • Computer Electronics
  • Telecommunications
  • Industrial
  • Military and Defences
  • Automotive
  • Aerospace

We at Argus Technologies are specialized in Customized PCB Design services, PCB Assembly service, PCB Fabrication, Embedded Hardware, and software.   Please contact us for details and to get free quote on our services.