Printed Circuit Board Testing Methods
To improve the production and assembly process of the PCB we at Argus technologies follow a wide variety of Printed Circuit Board Testing Methods and PCB testing tools to maintain PCB standards. We maintain best PCB testing procedures to maintain zero defect products. Some of the best PCB testing methods or PCB failure analysis test and testing tools were used in Argus defined and followed PCB testing process. The tested PCB has the highest success rate and offers an advantage for all customers and users equally. There are various Printed Circuit Board Testing Methods, below we are trying to capture commonly used methods and which are found to be most effective in testing Printing circuit boards.
Types of Test Done on Printed Circuit Board
- Solderability Testing
The PCB manufacturing process can be the main source of assembly related issues. To minimize the probability of failure, many manufacturers test component, and PCB pad. Solderability is the process to ensure the robustness of the surface and increase the probability of forming a reliable solder joint and minimize the failure.
The solderability failure method evaluates the strength and the quality of wetting of a solder by reproducing the contact between the solder and the material.
Solderability testing can verify that the components will meet the requirements and quality standards.
Solderability testing works on a variety of applications, including:
PCB coating evaluation
- PCB Contamination Testing
Contamination can cause issues like the rapid deterioration of wire bond interconnects, including corrosion, degradation, and metallization. Contaminations’ represent one of the most common issues of part failure.
Many manufacturers employ aggressive chemical processes during PCB fabrication, including the following:
- Copper etching liquid
• Hot air levelling fluxes
• Electrolytic solutions
• Water-soluble soldering
For the cleaning process, it requires chemicals to ensure the cleaning process. The electronics industry had introduced contamination testing. Which help in measuring the cleaning efficiency and stability of the cleaning process.
Contamination testing measures the amount of ionic contamination contained in a sample. The process of testing contamination involves
immersion of the PCB sample into solution. Ones it has been dissolved into the solution the ionic contamination, which causes a change in the constitution of the solutions and has a significant influence on the values or readings.
After findings, the readings the analyst plots the contamination level on a contamination testing and compare the value with the industry standards.
When the reading exceeds an established level it confirms that the manufacturer has a problem with the cleaning process. And it can cause detrimental effects, and be including corrosion and electro-chemical migration when the parts remain in the component. This technique can detect even the smallest parts.
- Optical Microscopy/Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)
Optical Microscopy is one of the preferred and best testing methods used for detecting the PCB faults and failures
which are associated with soldering and assembly. Optical microscopy is the best in speed and accuracy to find the faults of the PCB
the optical microscopy can reach up to 1000X has a small depth field and shows features in a single plane.
Sometimes PCB failure analysis requires more powerful magnification tools to detect the failure in the PCB.
SEM offers highly-effective testing techniques for performing semiconductor die failure analysis.
SEM Microscopes provides the detailed images at higher magnifications up to120, 000 X It is typical to have magnifications of 50,000 to 100,000 and feature resolutions down to 25 angstroms. This is one of the best methods to find the failures in the images for the analyst.
SEM Technology provides in-depth failure analysis with a three-dimensional view of the sample. It can also verify semiconductor die metallization, integrity, and quality. SEM also provides evidence of heat treatment and identifies the metal used.
- X-ray Inspection
This is the best powerfull tool for users for non-invasive failure analysis. Users have a choice of basic film X-ray, real-time X-ray and
3- dimensional X-ray systems, users can use these tools to detect actual or potential defects. With this tool, users can also inspect a PCB component that has hidden joints or parts located underneath a chip
With these basic X-ray inspection capabilities, technicians can conduct the following types of internal component examinations;
internal wire dress
die attach quality
voids in the sealing lid
substrate/printing wiring board trace integrity
insufficient excessive or poor solder
- Micro sectioning analysis
Micro sectioning is also known as Cross-sectioning and it refers to a printed circuit board testing methods used to investigate the PCB.
Opens or shorts
Processing failures due to solder reflow.
Raw material evaluations
In the micro sectioning, the failure analysis removes a 2-dimensional slice out of a sample which uncovers some of the features within the board. The micro-sectioning analysis provides a precise technique to the technician that isolates the relevant electronic component and removes parts from the sample PCB.
The advantage of this printed circuit board testing methods is the ability to position the sample on a flat surface and invest each part of its parts together.
We at Argus Technologies are specialized in Customized PCB Design services, PCB Assembly service, PCB Fabrication, Embedded Hardware, and software. Please contact us for details and to get a free quote on our services.